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Ideology of Pakistan and beyond | By General Raza Muhammad Khan (right)

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Ideology of Pakistan and beyond

THE BRITISH ruled India for more than a century after deposing, displacing or marginalizing Mughal and other Muslim rulers, exploiting the disunity and dispersion among them, in collusion with the Hindu Rajput and Maratha monarchs.

But as descendants of a conquering and ruling people in India for 800 years and followers of Islam, Muslims found it difficult to accept British rule and hated Hindu rule which epitomizes caste discrimination and pantheism, as opposed to the monotheistic faith of Islam.

In 1885, the Indian National Congress was born, which aspired to gain supremacy in a one-man, one-vote democratic dispensation all over India, in the future.

This gave rise to a consensus among Muslims that if the Islamic way of life could not be preserved in a pan-Indian configuration, it should be saved, as far as possible.

This sentiment was therefore theorized by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in 1886, who said that Muslims and Hindus were two separate nations.

When Bengal was partitioned in 1905 for administrative reasons by the British, Congress vehemently opposed it, as it gave preponderance and benefited the Muslims.

To protect the interests of Muslims and strengthen their political power in British India, the All India Muslim League (AIML) was born in Dhaka in 1906, at the residence of Nawab Salim Ullah, who was appointed its first vice-president and Aga Khan III, elected as the first President of the AIML, (a position he held competently for 12 years).

Although the division of Bengal was reversed six years later to appease the Hindus, it gave impetus to Muslim nationalism and the “two-nation concept” in India.

In 1926 the RSS was secretly established, to fight the Muslims and it grew exponentially on this manifesto.

This led, in 1929, to Quaid’s Fourteen Points, constitutional reforms to safeguard the political rights and defense of Muslims in a self-governing India.

Additionally, in 1930, Iqbal, as president of the AIML, envisioned a separate homeland for Muslims, through the merger of the Muslim-majority provinces of India.

Finally, these notions were formalized by the AIML resolution of March 23, 1940.

On this occasion, the Quaid said, “…Muslims should have their own separate homeland outside of Hindu-majority India, where Islam is the dominant religion.”

Subsequently, this resolution became the beacon of the Pakistani movement, until the partition of India.

Moreover, subsequently, the Muslim League, led by the Quaid, developed into a formidable political organization with unity of command, executive structure, communication framework, legal powers, ability to persuade and the consistency needed for the creation of Pakistan.

In 1944, Gandhi offered to jointly gain independence from the British and settle the Pakistan issue later, but Jinnah rejected it.

In 1946, when the British Cabinet Mission asked to rationalize the request for the creation of Pakistan, the Quaid said: “Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religions, cultures, philosophies, social customs and literature…

they are inspired by different historical sources; they have different epics, different heroes and lifestyles.

To assemble two such nations under one state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and the eventual destruction of any fabric which may thus be constructed for the government of such a state.

Unless there are essential unifying forces – how to put it – Muslims with a majority, whose way of life is so different?

In 1946, the AIML secured most Muslim votes in the elections for the interim government in India, which further legitimized Pakistan’s claim.

To prevent the creation of Pakistan, Gandhi even offered the post of Prime Minister of an interim government of India united to the Quaid, but he rejected it.

Ultimately, thanks to the tireless efforts of the Founding Fathers (including Liaquat Ali Khan, Abdur Rab Nishtar, Zafarullah Khan, Khwaja Nazimuddin, Huseyn Suhrawardy, AK Fazlul Huq, Khaliq uz Zaman, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, Ms. .

Fatima Jinnah and others) for more than 60 years, Pakistan appeared on the world map. After the establishment of Pakistan, the Quaid called it “the first Islamic state – a bulwark of Islam” with a sense of joyful and genuine pride.

He also said: “Our constitution must be democratic, embodying the essential principles of Islam.

Our decisions in affairs of state will be guided by — consultation, as the Almighty teaches.

These issues were enshrined in the constitution by the Goals Resolution of 1949 and have remained untouched ever since.

The birth of Pakistan also came at a cost unprecedented in history, when one million innocent people were killed by Hindu and Sikh mobs and 11 million displaced.

This sacrifice must never be in vain. Did the East Pakistanis abandon the two-nation theory in 1971?

Not really, because the breakup of Pakistan was encouraged by India and a host of militant pro-Indian Hindu intellectuals from East Pakistan, among 23% of the Hindu population.

The two nations became “three” after 1971, which is analogous to two Muslim brothers deciding to build separate houses without giving up their religious affinities.

Moreover, Bengali nationalism cannot unite Indian Bengal with Bangladesh. Consequently, Bangladesh joined the OIC in 1974 and their masses have never repudiated Islamic nationalism, despite external and internal efforts to secularize the country.

In fact, the “two-nation theory” has been revalidated by the current Indian rulers, through their policies of discrimination, victimization and hiduization, of their Muslim population.

This calls for our deep gratitude to the Almighty and our ancestors, for our freedom, despite resistance from the British majority, Hindus and even some Muslim scholars.

Let us also resolve, on this Pakistan Day, to follow the Quaid’s advice: “We have won the battle for the freedom of Pakistan, but the darkest war for its preservation and the building of Pakistan on more solid foundations must be carried out”.

Muslims must also recognize that the major challenges they face globally, such as Islamophobia, mistreatment of Muslims, Kashmir and Palestine, can only be addressed through pan-Islamic sisterhood .

—The author is former NDU President.